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  chtoby: initsiatoru boleye korotkikh chasov raboty i gumannogo regulirovaniya torgovli

 

Davayte otvoyevat' Pervomay

 

Kogda bol'shinstvo amerikantsev uslyshat' ot Pervomaya, oni izobrazite parad raket i sovetskikh voysk, dvizhushchikhsya po Krasnoy ploshchadi v Moskve. Bylo by trudno prinyat' prazdnik, kak, chto, posvyashchennyy nashemu unichtozheniyu. Pervomay ne vsegda tak. Odnazhdy, v samom dele, eto byl amerikanskiy isklyuchitel'no sobytiye. V etom godu (napisano v 1985 godu) yavlyayetsya 99-y den' rozhdeniya original'nogo den' maya, kotoryy prokhodil v Soyedinennykh Shtatakh.

Trudovoy prazdnik 1 maya Nachinali s prokhozhdeniyem rezolyutsii Federatsii organizovannykh torgov i profsoyuzov, predvestnik Amerikanskoy federatsii truda, kotoraya boretsya za 8-chasovoy rabochiy den'. Sleduyushcheye resheniye bylo prinyato na yeye s"yezde 1884 g.:

«Razreshayemyye Federatsii Organizovannykh torgov i Profsoyuzami Soyedinennykh Shtatov i Kanady, chto vosem' chasov sostavlyayut rabochuyu silu yuridicheskogo dnya s maya Pervogo 1886 goda, i my rekomenduyem trud organisasi na protyazhenii obzorov ikh yurisdiktsii, chto oni tak Pryamykh Otzyvov svoikh zakonov, kak v sootvetstvovat' etoy revolyutsii k tomu vremeni pod nazvaniyem ".

S 1 maya 1886 goda - pervyy den' maya - okolo 350 tysyach amerikanskikh rabochikh vyshli na zabastovku po vsey strane, zatragivaya boleye 11000 delovykh uchrezhdeniy. V rezul'tate etogo deystviya, boleye chem 50000 rabochikh poluchili 8-chasovoy rabochiy den', a yeshche 150 tysyach poluchili yego bez udara. Chikago byl tsentrom agitatsii Pervomaya, khotya rabochiye v N'yu-Yorke, Baltimore, Miluoki, Detroyt, i drugikh gorodov takzhe prinyali uchastiye.

Zabastovka Chikago osazhdayut napadeniye politsii na bastuyushchikh rabotnikov Makkormak Reaper rabotnikov, v kotorykh shest' rabochikh byli ubity. 4 maya massovyy miting sostoyalsya v Sennoy ploshchadi v znak protesta protiv zhestokosti politsii. Imenno na etoy vstreche, chto neustanovlennoye litso kinul bombu v tolpu, tem, kotoryy ubil serzhanta militsii. sem' politseyskikh i chetvero rabochikh byli ubity v khode skhvatki. Lidery finansiruyushchey anarkhistskoy gruppy byli privlecheny k sudu. Chetvero iz nikh byli osuzhdeny i povesheny za podstrekatel'stvo k nasiliyu. Neskol'ko drugikh byli Zaklyuchennyy. Vos'michasovoy dvizheniye stalo assotsiirovat'sya s anarkhistskoy bomby metaniya.

V to vremya kak rabotodateli Tus kontratakoval, rabocheye dvizheniye perezhivayet perestroyku sil. Federatsiya Organizovannyy professiy i trudovykh soyuzov rastvorili i byla organizovana Amerikanskaya federatsiya truda, chtoby zanyat' yego mesto. Novaya organizatsiya uklonilas' ot vseobshchikh zabastovok, khotya yego predannost' korotkiy rabochiy den' byl silen, kak nikogda.

Amerikanskaya federatsiya truda stroila plany na druguyu demonstratsiyu. Na 1888 g. v Sankt konventsii Louis, eta gruppa reshila udarit' po vosem'-chasovoy rabochiy den' na 1 maya 1890. Vmesto vseobshchey zabastovki, odnako, on vybral odin iz yego sostavnykh soyuzov, plotnikov i stolyarov, chtoby vesti bor'bu za vsego dvizheniya.

Opyat' zhe, udary pervomayskikh byli sokrushitel'nym uspekhom dlya organizovannogo truda. Pod energichnym rukovodstvom plotnikov soyuza proveli obshchenatsional'nuyu zabastovku, chemu moral'no i material'no drugimi soyuzami AFT. Kogda pyl' osela, boleye 23000 plotnikov v 36 gorodakh vyigral 8-chasovoy rabochiy den', a yeshche 32 000 9-chasovoy rabochiy den'. Uspekh etogo predpriyatiya pobudil AFL vybrat' drugiye ob"yedineniya dlya udarov pervomayskikh. Otzyvy Eta bor'ba prodolzhalas' i v 20-m veke.

Eto bylo v kontse 1880-kh godov, odnako, chto Pervomay stal otozhdestvlyat'sya s mezhdunarodnym sotsializmom. Karl Marks otmetil s Voskhishcheniyem, kak amerikanskiy 8-chasovoy mekhanizm «bezhal s ekspress skorost'yu ot Atlantiki do Tikhogo okeana, ot Novoy Anglii do Kalifornii» posle otmeny rabstva. Posle smerti Marksa, Vtoroy Internatsional byl organizovan v Parizhe na 100-y godovshchine padeniya Bastilii. Amerikanskiye delegaty prinesli vest' o zabastovkakh pervomayskogo vnimaniya etogo organa, i byla prinyata sleduyushchaya rezolyutsiya:

«Kongress reshayet organizovat' bol'shuyu mezhdunarodnuyu demonstratsiyu, tak chto vo vsekh stranakh i vo vsekh gorodakh v odin naznachennyy den' trudyashchiyesya massy dolzhny trebovat' ot gosudarstvennykh organov pravovogo sokrashcheniya rabochego dnya do vos'mi chasov ... Tak kak zhe demonstratsiya uzhe Reshila po sostoyaniyu na 1 maya 1890 goda amerikanskoy federatsii truda na yeye s"yezde v Sankt Lui, dekabr' 1888, v etot den' prinyat dlya mezhdunarodnoy demonstratsii.

Yevropeyskiye sotsialisty, v otlichiye ot AFL, sokhranil vseobshchuyu zabastovku v ikh soblyudenii Pervomaya. S 1 maya 1890 goda, sotsialisty v Germanii, Frantsii i drugikh stran prodemonstrirovali skopom za 8-chasovoy rabochiy den'.

V rukakh sotsialistov Pervomay perestal byt' prosto sbornym punktom dlya 8-chasovogo rabochego dnya, i priobrel boleye shirokoye revolyutsionnoye znacheniye. Stalo eto yezhegodnyy povod dlya sotsialistov vo glave zabastovki i demonstratsii solidarnosti rabochego klassa. Amerikanskoye profsoyuznoye dvizheniye otverglo etot kurs, i v kontse kontsov otkazalos' ot traditsii pervomayskoy. Yeshche odin prazdnik, Den' truda, byl sozdan na svoyem meste.

Impul's, chto predydushcheye pokoleniye amerikantsev bylo v rasshirenii svobodnogo vremeni bylo poteryano. Federal'nyye zakony, ustanovlennyye 8-chasovoy rabochiy den' i 40-chasovuyu rabochuyu nedelyu byli na meste v techeniye pochti poluveka, no udivitel'noye chislo amerikantsev rabotat' dolgiye chasy. Odin rabochiy v semi regulyarno rabotayet boleye chem na pyat' dney v nedelyu. Odin rabochiy v 10 rabotayet 50 ili boleye chasov v nedelyu. Amerikantsy v srednem dve nedeli yezhegodnogo oplachivayemogo otpuska, v to vremya kak chetyre ili pyat' nedel', yavlyayutsya tipichnymi v Yevrope.

Prishlo vremya, chtoby novyy Pervomay v Amerike, den' mira, a ne voyny. Eto mozhet byt' sdelano putem ob"yedineniya mira s original'noy temoy dnya, uluchsheniya dosuga dlya trudyashchikhsya. Ideya novogo Pervomaya ne govorit o tom, chto kommunisticheskaya sistema byla ustanovlena v Soyedinennykh Shtatakh; eto budet oznachat' resheniye dlya polozhitel'nogo, a ne otritsatel'nogo skhozhdeniya s russkimi. Polozhitel'naya konvergentsiya by zhelaniye nayti obshchiy yazyk, chtoby podelit'sya so svoim protivnikom.

Sovmestnyye predpriyatiya mezhdu sverkhderzhavami dlya mirnogo osvoyeniya kosmosa budet odna oblast' dlya osushchestvleniya pozitivnoy konvergentsii. Ne nasiluya nashikh tsennostey i traditsiy, my mozhem aktivno stroit' mir, razvivaya tochki soprikosnoveniya mezhdu nami i nashimi protivnikami.

V odin korotkiy god eto budet 100 let so dnya zabastovki, kotoryye nachali etu traditsiyu. Davayte vospol'zuyemsya sluchayem, chtoby Peresmotret' svoye otnosheniye k Pervomayu. Imeya uverennost' v sebe, kak svobodnoye obshchestvo, my mozhem prinyat' vyzov mirnoy konkurentsii s Sovetskim Soyuzom v demonstratsii sotsial'nogo i ekonomicheskogo progressa.

Dvadtsat' let nazad istorik Arnol'd Toynbi zametil, chto amerikantsy po-vidimomu, otkazalis' ot mirovoy revolyutsii v dvizhenii v Leksingtone i Konkorde po otzyvam tekh, kto boyevyye gotovnost' fermery strelyali uslyshany vo vsem mire. On zadal etot vopros: «Mozhet li Amerika vossoyedinit'sya svoyu sobstvennuyu revolyutsiyu?» Krome togo, udary pervomayskiye v Chikago i drugikh amerikanskikh gorodakh byli uslyshany, rabotaya lyudey po vsemu miru, kak obeshchaniya ekonomicheskoy svobody.

Svyatoy Louis Post-Dispatch, 30 aprelya 1985, str. 3B «Davayte Otbit' Pervomaya on zarodilsya v SSHA 99 let nazad, chtoby sodeystvovat' 8-chasovoy rabochiy den'»

 

  chtoby: initsiatoru boleye korotkikh chasov raboty i gumannogo regulirovaniya torgovli

 

Nazhmite dlya perevoda v:

Angliyskiy - uproshchennyy kitayskiy - Indoneziyskiy - Turetskiy - Pol'skiy - Gollandskiy

 

 

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