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Chto takoye tsivilizatsiya? 

 


Tsivilizatsiya yavlyayetsya svoyego roda chelovecheskogo soobshchestva ili obshchestva dobilsya togo, chto imeyet opredelennyy uroven' kul'tury. Eto kontrastiruyet s primitivnymi soobshchestvami, ne imeyushchimi takoy kul'tury. Urozhay dolzhen byt' sravnitel'no razrabotala peredovyye zolota. Ona budet vklyuchat' v sebya shirokomasshtabnyye politicheskiye organizatsii i slozhnoye vyrazheniye v srede, takoy kak pis'mennoy forme. Termin "prodvinutyye" Podrazumevayetsya (vozmozhno, oshibochno) diye la Kul'tura prevoskhodit drugiye.

Arnol'd Toynbi, angliyskiy istorik otmetil, chto videl tsivilizatsiyu kak obshchestvo Qui Advanced had imet' opredelennyy uroven'. A "obshchestvo" pri uslovii "obshchaya massa" dlya vzaimodeystviya cheloveka; Eto bylo samodostatochnym soobshchestvo. Poisk mirovoy istorii, Toynbi nashel dvadtsat' odin obshchestva Qui stavshimi tsivilizatsii. Oni byli Egyptiac, Sumeric, minoyskoy, Khetteyanin, Babylonic, siriyskiy, Hellenic, Zapadnaya khristianskaya, pravoslavnaya, russkaya pravoslavnaya, arabskiy, Iranic, Sinic, Indic, Dal'nevostochnyy, yaponskiy dal'nevostochnaya, induistskaya, mayya, And, yukatekskoy, i Mexic tsivilizatsii. Bol'shinstvo iz nikh byli vymershiye tsivilizatsii. Nekotoryye vse zhe vyzhivayut.

Skhema tsivilizatsii v pyati Epokhi tsivilizatsiy otkhodit ot modeli Toynbi v neskol'kikh otnosheniyakh. Vo-pervykh, v to vremya kak Toynbi Vidit tsivilizatsii v kachestve otdel'nykh regional'nykh kul'tur Geograficheski, McGaughey Vidit tsivilizatsiyu kak kurs yedinoy mirovoy kul'tury. Nekotoryye narody prikhodyat k etomu khode kul'turnogo razvitiya raneye ili pozzhe, chem drugiye. Vo-vtorykh, Toynbi vidit tsivilizatsiyu kak Buduchi obshchestvom - to yest', telo lyudey, kotoryye politicheski i kul'turno organizovannymi. McGaughey delayet aktsent na kul'turu obshchestva. V etoy skheme, tsivilizatsiya yavlyayetsya vernym kul'turnaya konfiguratsiya Vne zavisimosti ot togo, gde ona mozhet byt' voploshchena.

Tsivilizatsii legche vsego ponyat', kogda konkretnyye soobshchestva peredovykh vyrashchivaniya proizrastayet v Posredi primitivnykh obshchestvakh. Naprimer, gorod Vavilon Est devenu tsentr imperii Vo vremya pravleniya Khammurapi (1792-1750 g. do R. KH.) Osnovannaya amoreyskikh soplemennikov v kontse 3-go tysyacheletiya g. do R. KH., on byl odnim iz neskol'kikh gosudarstv-preyemnikov imperii Shumera i Akkada. Tsar' Khammurapi Vavilon ob"yedinil bol'shinstvo iz nikh vo vremya voyennoy kampanii v devyat' let. Zatem, cherez sem' let posle smerti Khammurapi, kassitov varvary napali Eto gorod i yego imperiya pala. Tem ne meneye, vavilonskiy "tsivilizatsiya", v nekotorom smysle, dlya prodlilas' yeshche neskol'ko stoletiy, poskol'ku vyrashchivaniye Razrabotano pod Khammurapi Ostavshis' dominiruyushchim v regione v techeniye etogo vremeni.

Tak chto lyudi chuvstvuyut sebya komfortno govorit' o "yegipetskom" ili "Khetteyaninom", ili "minoyskoy" tsivilizatsii, obshchestva Dostignutyye god prodvinulsya kul'tivirovaniya, a zatem upal. Nekotoryye vernulis' k primitivnomu sostoyaniyu, a drugiye (naprimer, Yegipet) Prosto poteryali svoyu politicheskuyu tselostnost'. Kogda my prikhodim v sovremennuyu epokhu, odnako, meneye yasno, kto prinadlezhit k kakoy tsivilizatsii, poskol'ku kul'tur i narodov peremeshany sushchestvu. Toynbi predpolagayetsya samoye bol'sheye, chto nastoyashcheye vremya amerikantsy i yevropeytsy otnosyatsya k "zapadnomu" (ili zapadnoy khristianskoy) tsivilizatsii Qui Nachal vo vremya Karla Velikogo. Yesli da, to tsivilizatsiya nastol'ko vydvinutym i diffuznogo v kul'ture, dolzhny Otsutstviye real'noy lichnosti.

Skhema regional'nykh tsivilizatsiy lomayetsya v etom meste. Yesli chelovecheskiye soobshchestva, imeyut sushchestvennyye biznes kosnut'sya i osoznaniye drug druga, to ikh "tsivilizatsii" dolzhny byt' zagryazneny s bol'shim chislom chuzherodnykh vliyaniy. V kontse kontsov, regional'nyye by neskol'ko kul'tur obrazuyut obshchuyu kul'turnuyu ili sliyaniye kul'tur v razlichnoy stepeni. Eto imeyet smysl, pri obstoyatel'stvakh Te, govorit' o yedinoy kul'turoy Qui ESTa predprinima vo vsem mire i Differentsirovat' tsivilizatsii na osnove stepeni ikh kul'turnogo progressa. Tsivilizatsii by opisat', kak eto obshchestvo bylo organizovano na baze IKT Osobykh kursov po istorii. Kazhdyy kurs budet slabo svyazan s opredelennym periodom goda, priznavaya, chto nekotoryye obshchiny "progress" boleye bystrymi tempami, chtoby novyy uchebnyy, chem eto delayut drugiye.

Skhema tsivilizatsiy v knige, pyat' Epokhi tsivilizatsiy, Deleniye vsemirnoy istorii na pyat' etapov, ili epokh, partnera posle togo, kak pervyye tsivilizovannyye gosudarstva Voznik v Yegipte i Mesopotamii pyat'-shest' tysyach let nazad. Kazhdaya epokha svyazana s opredelennoy tsivilizatsii (udobno mechenoy Civilization I, Civilization II, Civilization III, Civilization IV i Civilization V). Strogo govorya, tsivilizatsiya predstavlyayet soboy kul'turnuyu konfiguratsiyu v to vremya kak epokha, konechno, period vremeni. V prakticheskom smysle, odnako, eti dva termina yavlyayutsya sinonimami. Epokhu, kogda obmen valyuty tsivilizatsii.

Poskol'ku chelovecheskoye kul'tivirovaniye podvergayetsya razlichnym interpretatsiyam, sushchestvuyet potrebnost' v opredeleniyakh vvesti nekotoruyu strogost' v diskussiyu. Skhema predstavlena v pyati Epokhi rabotnikov tsivilizatsii v dvukh naborakh peremennykh Opredeleniye tsivilizatsii. Vo-pervykh by byt' takoy tekhnicheskoy kommunikatsii, kotoraya byla dominiruyushchey v IKT publichnykh diskussiy. Vo-vtorykh budet to, chto byl dominiruyushchim institutom v obshchestve. Dominiruyushchiy element, kotoryy byl aussi Est devenu Polnost'yu razrabotana v nachale informatsionno-kommunikatsionnykh tekhnologiy epokhi v istorii.

I tak, v tablichnoy forme, my imet' sleduyushchuyu skhemu tsivilizatsiy:

name of civilization
communication technology
institution of power
Tsivilizatsiya I
ideographic writing
imperial government
Tsivilizatsiya II
alphabetic writing
world religion
Tsivilizatsiya III
printing
commerce and education
Tsivilizatsiya IV
electronic recording and broadcasting
media of news and entertainment
Tsivilizatsiya V
computers
the internet

 Eta skhema tsivilizatsii oskorblyayet nekotorykh lyudey. Nekotoryye schitayut, chto s tekh por tsivilizatsii, traditsionno imeli regional'nuyu assotsiatsiyu, ideya mirovykh tsivilizatsiy vykhodit za ramki ikh opredeleniya; i, na samom dele, nekotoryye --Raznoye slovo dolzhno byt' ispol'zovano. Drugiye oskorbleny ideyey, chto populyarnoye razvlecheniye, prikhodya v chetvertuyu epokhu vsemirnoy istorii, SCCM by byt' boleye prodvinutoy, s istoricheskoy tochki zreniya, chem gramotnoy kul'tury, predshestvovavshiy. Te molodyye muzhchiny i zhenshchiny khodyat s naushnikami i nosit' sportivnyye mayki i dzhinsy na samom dele boleye "tsivilizovannyye", chem chelovek, kotoryy rasslablyayet s khoroshiy roman?

V otvet na eto, davayte skazhem, chto tsivilizatsii ne obyazatel'no luchshe ili khuzhe, chem drugiye stremyatsya lish' raznyye. Mozhno Priznayte kul'tura viktorianskoy Anglii - Civilization III - v ICTS aktsent na literaturnom sovershenstva, obrazovaniya i biznesa predpriyatiya. Segodnyashnyaya massovaya kul'tura - Civilization IV - byl by pogloshchen obrazami, zvukami, i lichnostey, yest' byvshiye lyudi, kotoryye veshchayut v massy cherez kino, radio i televideniya. Oni, po suti, dve tsivilizatsii.

Obshchestva po vsemu miru ispytyvayut perekhod ot odnoy formy k kul'tivatsii Otzyvy drugoy. Stol'ko, skol'ko nekotoryye skazali by, naprimer, chto sovremennyy Kitay: yest' "kitayskuyu kul'turu", vdokhnovlennuyu Konfutsiyem i drugimi, ona aussi prinadlezhit k mezhdunarodnoy kul'ture rok-n-rolla, vysokoy mody i mezhdunarodnogo biznesa. Uchenyye sporyat maya Qui skhema tsivilizatsii analiticheski boleye poleznym zoloto blizhe k istoricheskim faktam, izvestnym.

Nazhmite dlya perevoda v:

Angliyskiy - Frantsuzskiy - Ispanskiy - Nemetskiy - Portugal'skiy - Ital'yanskiy

uproshchennyy kitayskiy - Indoneziyskiy - Turetskiy - Pol'skiy - Gollandskiy   

   

 
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